Complete Architecture of ISO/OSI and in 2023

 ISO/OSI design

The ISO OSI (English Open System Interconnection Reference Model) may be a comprehensive network communication customary (ISO 7498). The communication method in step with this model has been divided into seven stages, referred to as layers, thanks to the approach info passes between them. in step with the OSI model, every protocol communicates with its counterpart, that is associate implementation of constant protocol at the peer communication layer of the distant system. information is passed from the highest of the stack, through sequent layers, to the physical layer, that sends it through the network to a foreign host. 

Complete Architecture of ISO/OSI and in 2023

1. Physical layer

It provides information transmission between network nodes. It defines the network interfaces and transmission medium. It defines e.g. technique of mechanical and electrical affiliation, customary of physical information transmission. Its objects embrace, among others: cables, network cards, modems, amplifiers, hubs. 

2. data link layer

Ensures electric circuit responsibleness. It defines error checking mechanisms in transmitted frames or packets - CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). it's closely associated with the physical layer that dictates the topology. This layer typically deals with information compression yet. Its objects embrace drivers for network devices, e.g. drivers for network cards, bridges and switches. 

3. Network layer

Provides ways for establishing, maintaining, and disconnecting a network affiliation. Handles communication errors. additionally, it's to blame for routing packets within the network, i.e. crucial the best route for the affiliation. beneath some conditions, it's acceptable to drop packets through this layer. Its objects embrace, among others: routers. 

4. Transport layer

Provides clear point-to-point information transfer. It takes care of the order of packets received by the recipient. It checks the correctness of the transmitted packets and just in case of their harm or loss, ensures their retransmission. 

5. Session layer

It allows applications on remote computers to exchange information between them. Controls the creating and breaking of the affiliation by the appliance. She is to blame for the proper execution of the request for a given service. This layer includes API functions created on the market to the software engineer by a library providing access to the network at level higher than the transport layer, like the BSD streams and sockets library. 

6. Presentation layer

It provides translation of knowledge, process their format and acceptable syntax. It allows the transformation of knowledge into a regular, application-independent kind. It solves issues like inconsistent illustration of numbers, line breaks, national letters, etc. it's additionally to blame for compression and coding. 

7. Application layer

Provides ways for applications to access the OSI setting. This layer provides finish services for the appliance, as well as sharing resources (files, printers). Network processes directly accessible to the user reside at this level.

TCP/IP design

TCP/IP follows a four-layer abstract model called the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency model. The four layers of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency model are: application, transport, net and network interface layers. every layer of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency model corresponds to at least one or additional layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. 


Network interface layer

The network interface layer, additionally called the network access layer, is to blame for putting TCP/IP packets on the network medium and receiving TCP/IP packets from that medium. TCP/IP is intended to be freelance of network access technique, frame format, and medium. Thus, TCP/IP may be accustomed connect differing kinds of networks, like LAN and Token Ring. The network interface layer surrounds the affiliation and physical layers of the OSI model. the net layer doesn't use the queuing and acknowledgment services which will be gift within the affiliation layer. These tasks square measure handled by the transport layer. 


Internet layer

The internet layer is to blame for addressing, packaging and routing functions. the fundamental net layer protocols square measure information science, ARP, ICMP and IGMP.

The Internet Protocol (IP) may be a routable protocol to blame for information science addressing, routing, and packet cacophonic and merging.

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is to blame for changing net layer addresses to network interface layer addresses, like a hardware address.

The Internet management Message Protocol (ICMP) is to blame for the diagnostic functions and coverage of information science packet delivery errors.

The Internet cluster Management Protocol (IGMP) is to blame for managing cluster transmissions.

The internet layer is like the network layer of the OSI model. 


Transport layer

The transport layer is to blame for providing the appliance layer with session and datagram services. The transport layer protocols square measure Transmission management Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

TCP is to blame for establishing the affiliation, queuing, acknowledging sent packets and convalescent lost packets.

UDP is employed once a little quantity of knowledge is shipped (that is, what's going to slot in one packet) or once the price of building a TCP affiliation is just too high.

The transport layer performs the tasks of the OSI transport layer and a part of the tasks of the OSI session layer. 


Application layer


The application layer permits applications to use the services of different layers and defines the protocols employed by the appliance to exchange information. There square measure several application layer protocols and new ones square measure being developed all the time. The known application layer protocols square measure those accustomed exchange user information:


  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is employed to transfer web site files of the planet Wide internet.

  • The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is employed to transfer files interactively.

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is employed to transfer mail and attachments.

  • Telnet, a emulation protocol, is employed to go surfing remotely to hosts.

  • In addition, the subsequent protocols facilitate the employment associated management of TCP/IP networks: •Domain Name System (DNS) is employed to resolve a number name to an information science address.

  • Routing info Protocol (RIP) may be a protocol that routers use to exchange info.

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is employed between the network console and devices (routers, bridges, good hubs) to gather and exchange management info.


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